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Heparin is a sulfated natural mucopolysaccharide, which is widely found in human and mammalian tissues and has anticoagulant effect. Heparin is produced by mast cells close to blood vessels and often exists in the form of proteoglycan units. Its chemical structure is composed of dexglucuronic acid and dextroglucosamine alternately connected, with a molecular weight distribution of 5000-30000 and an average molecular weight of 20000;

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Heparin is a sulfated natural mucopolysaccharide, which is widely found in human and mammalian tissues and has anticoagulant effect. Heparin is produced by mast cells close to blood vessels and often exists in the form of proteoglycan units. Its chemical structure is composed of dexglucuronic acid and dextroglucosamine alternately connected, with a molecular weight distribution of 5000-30000 and an average molecular weight of 20000;
Clinically used heparin is extracted and purified from the small intestinal mucosa of healthy pigs. Sodium and calcium salts of heparin are usually used clinically, mainly heparin sodium;
Heparin has strong anticoagulant and antithrombotic functions, that is, it inhibits the functions of Xa and IIa. The anticoagulant mechanism of heparin is relatively unique, mainly through the combination with antithrombin Ⅲ (ATⅢ), inhibiting the formation and activity of prothrombin activator and thrombin, thereby promoting the dissolution of fibrin (thrombus), and through Inhibiting the adhesion and aggregation of platelets indirectly affects the release of coagulation factors in platelets, so it has anticoagulant effects both in and out of the human body. In addition to anticoagulant and antithrombotic functions, heparin also has various biological functions such as lowering blood lipids, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC), anti-inflammation, anti-allergy, anti-virus, and anti-cancer. Therefore, heparin is widely used in medicine and has a good therapeutic effect on many diseases;
In addition to direct clinical use of heparin for anticoagulant and antithrombotic, heparin is also a raw material for the production of various heparin-derived drugs such as bottom molecular heparin.

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